Depending on the topography of the terrain, geographical location and the difficulty in obtaining adequate building materials, the design and especially the construction of roads can be a task of extreme difficulty. The following are examples, in different parts of the world, of some of the most difficult road construction projects ever taken, involving extreme design complexity or heavy and time-consuming logistics.
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The winners of the annual City Climate Leadership Awards which aim to provide global recognition for cities that are demonstrating climate action leadership, have been announced and with a few surprises. Competing in 10 different categories where more than 120 candidates across five continents, including some of the most unique cities in the world in its infrastructure and progress in addressing climate change.
The construction of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge Eastern Span was finished just a few days ago, replacing the old and unsafe cantilever portion of the massive engineering structure. The new span took 15 years to build and constituted the largest public works project in California history with a total cost of $6.4 billion.
Concrete is probably the most widely used construction material in the present. It is used, for instance, in buildings, bridges, roads, offshore platforms and nuclear installations. Hence, it is quite understandable that the modelling of the concrete constitutive relations has been the subject of intensive research in the last twenty years.
Flexible road pavements are submitted to stresses, which are due both to vehicle loads as well as to the effects of climatic factors. The analysis of pavement behaviour, be it in the phase of design of a new road or in that of design of its rehabilitation, renders it essential for one to know the indicators of the bearing capacity of the pavement structure and subgrade.